Technological Foundation

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Vapor Chamber

The principle of Vapor Chamber technology

A vapor chamber is a vacuum receptacle with an inner capillary structure. The vapor chamber is filled with a set percentage of specified liquid.


When a heat source is applied to a vapor chamber, the working liquid at the heat source vaporizes instantly and the vapor rushes to fill the entire chamber via capillary action.


This vapor will condense when it contacts the cooler sides of the wall; this initial vaporization of the liquid and consequent return to a liquid state becomes a highly efficient heat exchange system.


The condensed liquid then returns to the heat source via capillary action, ready to be vaporized again, repeating the cycle for as long as the heat source maintains a need for such heat exchange.


A simple guide to understanding vapor chambers. 


Conventional Vapor Chambers vs. LEA made VCs.
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Heatlane ​

Mechanical design of multiple single grooves. The use of coolant such as alcohol and acetone.

Heat transfer flows only in one direction.


Capillary action occurs within the internal structure of the vapor chamber. Due to the use of a refrigerant, the heat circulation occurs repeatedly caused by pressure generated from the temperature differential between the heat receiving and the heat radiating side.



Mechanical design of connecting grooves. 

Rapid heat transfer and diffusion throughout the inner chamber by using a refrigerant such as R134a. Increases heat transfer across the VC.

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Aluminum VC vs. Aluminum Block
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Test results shows that ALVC has a higher heat dissipation rate compared to the aluminum block.

Solid Al Plate vs Aluminum Vapor Chamber

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Test data on LEA's Aluminum Vapor Chamber (ALVC) Co-op with Waseda University

An aluminum vapor chamber with dimensions of 300(L) x 67(W) x 5(T) was used with refrigerant R134a.


The test was conducted using angles θ and φ.

This was done to measure the vapor chamber's thermal resistance when applied to a heat source up to 100W.

Vibration of particles was not detected while thermal resistance remained high during input of 10-20W. 

Additionally, when angles θ and φ are large, thermal resistance is reduced. 

Vibration of particles increases alongside the reduction of thermal resistance when heat input increases from 30W to 100W. 

For more info on the results of the test please feel free to contact us. Click here!

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Angle Orientation difference in determining thermal resistance


Aluminum Vapor Chamber Heatsink


With the functions of the vapor chamber combined with fins for its increased heat exchange surfaces, the heat exchange performance of the vapor chamber drastically increases.


Aluminum brazing technology allows us to combine the fins to the vapor chamber. Brazing technology enables better thermal conductivity at the fin/vapor chamber joints, significantly increasing its performance. Furthermore, Aluminum Vapor Chamber Heat-sinks (ALVC) has better flexibility in constructing shapes and it is much lighter due to the aluminum material and the empty spaces inside the vapor chamber.

Benefits of Al Vapor Chamber Heat-sink.

  • Light Weight, Durable.

  • Flexible and retains shape.

  • 30% faster as compared to water cooling transmission due to refrigerant.

  • Post machining is not required. Fins are welded together with the heatsink.

  • 100% aluminum, 100% recyclable


4 reasons why aluminum vapor chambers are better than copper vapor chambers


Thermoelectric Vapor Chamber System​


The TVC is a combination of vapor chamber technology with thermoelectric modules. The vapor chamber supports the thermoelectric modules by improving its ability to cool the surroundings and maintain it at a stable temperature range.

Additionally, the vapor chamber enlarges the surface area of the thermoelectric modules for wider heating capacity.


Through this combination, a high coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.0~1.8 is achievable. Alongside, precise temperature control of (+/-0.5C) is also attainable through this unique combination.


The combination of these two thermal technologies enables LEA to achieve high performance in temperature control in a wide variety of applications.

Example Applications:

Our Published Research papers on the TVC system: 


Liquid Cold Plate - Liquid Cooling

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Besides air cooling, LEA has expertise in using liquid cooling for thermal systems requiring temperature management through Cold Plates. 

Cold Plate are useful applications that demand close contact cooling requirements.

Applications such as diverse medical devices, high-powered electronics, lazers, military and aerospace, and power generation.

Liquid Cold Plates are an efficient way to cool high power and high-temperature environments due to its close contact and ability to withstand and transfer large amounts of heat.


Our most recent application is for Autonomous Driving Control Unit (ADCU) for EVs.

We're able to customize the dimensions and shape of the cold plate to better suit the thermal conditions and requirements.


For inquiries, test results, quotations, please click here!


LEA's Production Methods


Extrusion Processing Products

LEA has a large variety of extrusion-based products that can be produced in small quantities for testing purposes or mass produced in large quantities to meet large volume orders. 

Extruded product list.

Machining Process Products

LEA has a long experience with machining-based, 'computer numerical control' (CNC) processes for manufacturing customizable heatsinks and vapor chambers. 

Ability to manufacture a wide range of product dimensions catered to customer preferences.

*Limitation of maximum thickness of 3.5mm. *


Forging Process

Depending on the customer's needs and conditions, we are also capable of producing a vapor chamber through forging.

Our manufacturing capability is able to produce  3000 to 5000 pieces per process. Our forging process allows us to construct complex shapes and sizes in order to fit into diverse applications with complicated thermal requirements.

Brazing Process

Brazing is a metal-joining process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, with the filler metal having a lower melting point than the adjoining metal.

The vapor chambers we provide are aluminum plates brazed together to form the vapor chamber. Fins for our vapor chamber heatsinks are also brazed on through a similar process. 


Laser Cutting

Laser cutting is mainly a thermal process in which a focused laser beam is used to melt material in a localized area and used to create a specified shape according to the design.​ It is a very quick cutting process that allows the production of large quantities of 2D shapes.

3D Bending Machine

Our manufacturing facilities also provide 3D bending, which allows us to bend the cut 2D shapes into more complex structures. The bending tool also enables us to create various aluminum sheet material structures to make different vapor chamber shapes. 


3D Metal Printing​

3D metal printing technology provides the flexibility of making the required complex shape of the heat exchanger. During the R&D stage, this technology could shorten the development time and cost.